Constructivist Teaching Methods
Constructivist Teaching Methods
Constructivist teaching methods is a fundamental part of research at the misconceptions or alternative frameworks for students. The theory is based on the belief that knowledge is built by students as a result of their interactions with the world around them in the middle of a social or template is affected by their knowledge and previous experience.
Constructivist teaching methods aware of the role of acceptance (assimilation), and adaptation (accommodation) and imbalance (disequilibrium), but they focus more on the role of prior knowledge (prior knowledge) compared to a following Piaget. Explains constructivist teaching methods that the structures of prior art work as refineries and facilitator of ideas and new experiences are the same structures of knowledge can be transformed during the learning. “
Constructivism is the theory of learning and not a method of teaching or guidance. Could examine the ways teachers know ” constructivism ” when they are aware of them and studying in a manner consistent with how students learn. Require teaching methods compatible with how learning strategies different from those that follow, often in the classroom. The only way to learn how to teach teachers the way construction is a structural way to learn.
The constructivist teaching methods as belief that students build their knowledge of themselves. This is not a position, and arguably most intellectuals agree with the idea of constructivism. When students and even young children studied science to have an initial preliminary ideas for the interpretation of the “phenomenon” which they observe. And when events occur as expected student is accepted to build pre-existing knowledge, but when there are unexpected events must be adapted to students with a contradiction to rebuild relationships in the knowledge they construct. Known acceptance (assimilation) is usually the conceptual growth while the known adjustment (accommodation) to change the concepts.
According to Appleton (1993), there are four possible outcomes when the student encountered the phenomenon of new science. If the information is compatible with the new ideas found in the student previously, we find that the student accepts this new information. In this way, existing ideas will be reinforced, whether these ideas are true or false, but the student may find that the new information is compatible with the existing information has, in this case a situation occurs rational dispute with the student. And occurs in one of the following three outcomes:
- Can find the student that his ideas are not appropriate and should be re-installed or set up. In this way the student being the “adjustment” (accommodation) the composition of a knowledge network of new ideas.
- Could not the student rebuilding ideas present, but instead wait for an answer “correct” where returning students have to wait and accept the power (the text in the book or the teacher or a parent) to give them the correct information, and is remembered the right answer and quickly retrieved in an environment similar (as school), but is not likely to remember and access them in other environments.
Latter possibility is in the case that students see that their ideas are not effective, but they refuse to make an effort to adapt or waiting for the correct answer. Maybe they had a lot of failed experiments in science, so they chose not to learn an alternative. Teaching and learning in a constructivist teaching methods environment require that students and teachers take different roles. Specifically these roles depends on a specific model or interpretation of desirable building construction.
Been identified in many ways of constructivist teaching methods and learningroots constructivism. This literature review briefly four aspects (methods): Information Processing, construction of effective (Interactive-Constructivist), social constructivism and radical constructivism. These four aspects commensurate with the scale related to structural explanations based on decreasing the role of the teacher and the increase or activate the role of the learner. Any interpretation to consider “structural” through special lenses.
Interactive constructivist teaching methods
The Interactive Constructivist actor claims that learn as two components: a special component (private components) and component in (public components) and this view is shared with many of them. This view suggests that students are their knowledge and learn when they can interact with the natural world and people around them and this is the component of the year. It consists in the meaning when attached (followed by) the students to their interactions and they speak here, this component is only when students have time for the two phases (components) together on stage (component) and Phase Assembly (General Component) to be able to learn to reconcile their ideas and experience of previous new.
Has a structural effective the following characteristics:
- Compatibility between the outputs, and teaching (direction), and resources evaluation (assessment);
- Output change concepts, growth concepts, and strategies for learning beyond knowledge (meta-cognitive strategic learning);
- Do not rule out the direct guidance contained in the context of normal, according to need;
- Supports the big ideas, the scientific culture (science literacy) and the mental habits of mind needed to achieve scientific knowledge;
- Requires the ability of students to : Configure the structures of knowledge, critical thinking, knowledge and intentions to connect to convince others their value or usefulness;
- include-oriented research (guided inquiry), distance learning courses (learning cycles), change concepts, and means of productive (generative approaches);
- Teaching includes: appreciation,and participation,experimentation/exploring, justification / logical (rationalizing), cohesion (consolidating) / integrating old and new, and the application of knowledge.
While students are graded during the early stages of mental multi-teachers must use certain strategies in structural classes of effective curricula. Include the proposed phases: the creation of what the students already on the subject under discussion, puts the goals of cognitive / behavioral specific learners, understand how to include students through the various stages, to involve students in experiences multiple challenge their ideas, give students time to experience the phenomenon in many ways, the application of ideas new comment on the learning (reflection on learning).
Students have different ideas to be tested and this is the experience of multiple sets of different things. Although the teacher encourages students to go in achieving the goal and only occupied with activities that students are the ones who strive and review in the sensory information that comes from experiences, photos, and printed materials, and discussions to create meaning. The teacher can give meaning to the student as a result of the possibility of differences in understanding between individuals in the same group or community of students.
Students in the classes of effective structural control realize the teacher in the classroom and guidance, although their initial thoughts on the subject, which provides a starting point for teaching (direction), but the pop-up ideas and scientific understanding that is driving lessons. Maintain constructivist teaching methods as teaching strategies used in the classroom in the province on the central ideas of the students and their voices. Refine the structural effective teacher knowledge by helping students to form their own meaning, rather than telling them what they want to know.
The teacher can stimulate and guide the public discussion to clarify ideas and to support negotiations to confirm the integration of ideas within the student network concepts. Urges the teacher and fosters the creation of meaning among students in short-term memory and store knowledge in long-term memory using an integrated structural strategies.
Constructivist teaching methods is based on constructivist learning theory. This theoretical framework holds that learning always builds upon knowledge that a student already knows; this prior knowledge is called a schema. Because all learning is filtered through pre-existing schemata.
Constructivist teaching methods suggest that learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in the learning process rather than attempting to receive knowledge passively. A wide variety of methods claim to be based on constructivist learning theory. Most of these methods rely on some form of guided discovery where the teacher avoids most direct instruction and attempts to lead the student through questions and activities to discover, discuss, appreciate and verbally the new knowledge.