Adult Teaching Methods
Adult Teaching Methods
Characteristics of adult teaching methods :
1. It is a voluntary, where learners attend their own free choice, it is in most countries of the world is not mandatory. The experience of many countries, the failure of the obligation and the penalties in adult education.
2. that education does not devote his full-time attention regular; attending, but it some time.
3. It is organized by the adult teaching methods, and funded by various institutions, governmental and non-governmental organizations.
4. It is adult teaching methods which is organized over the age of compulsory basic education, and enter this in the context of literacy education, reading, writing and arithmetic.
Different patterns of adult teaching methods
- the level of individuals or groups served by; we find that these groups begin to children who were not absorbed schools of compulsory education, or who dropped out of primary education after joining the tags for various reasons, or illiterate, who have missed opportunities for education . Then escalate to include these groups from attending vocational training programs, and employees in different job sectors, in the form of programs for activation or renewal or transfer of training. And ends with this vertical division who attend graduate programs.
- the needs of the groups it serves, it may be a program to teach reading, writing and arithmetic operations, or to raise awareness of health, or agricultural extension, or maternal and child care, or training on the skills of building and construction, or nursing skills, and may be a social program intended to raise social awareness of individuals, and motivate them to participate in improving the conditions in the workplace, or in the family or in society in general.
- according to the quality of institutions and agencies that provide services; and that’s where we find a large number of institutions, the adult teaching methods whose main mission, or part of its core functions, and enter in these institutions : in universities, and departments of vocational training in the various ministries (defense, health , agriculture, social affairs, industry) and training centers in the industrial and commercial enterprises, universities, unions, labor education institutions, trade unions, and public institutions such as charities, and child-care centers and maternity.
Different objectives and functions of adult teaching methods
According to the political, historical, economic, cultural, educational and technology in each community, according to the aspirations of the future that was sought by individuals, the community is looking to achieve in the professions and jobs and different crafts.
This means that there are no objectives and functions agreed for adult teaching methods, in spite of this, the review of recent literature in the field of adult education refers to the three core functions must be carried out by adult education in any site in any area, namely:
- self-criticism; sense that runs adult education for those who attend it, to know the strengths and weaknesses in the performance of its role, in the family, the workplace and in society.
- self-management; in the sense that provides adult education from attending the knowledge and skills, and the pattern of relations with the self, with others, and with the tools and devices that make them able to perform the roles assigned to them are coming back to them, and the group they are working with, and the community the benefits of better the benefits that they achieve before they attend the program, and to do the tasks entrusted to them self-motivated, based on the understanding and try to self-improvement.
- maintenance of self in a social context; the sense to know the great duties and seeks to performance, and to know their rights, and rights of others, Fair to satisfy the legitimate democratic means, which cooperate on the maintenance of the same individual and social.
The principles of adult teaching methods
About this complicated mix of patterns of adult education, it is difficult to talk about entries specific to adult education, because of the different groups that organized it, and the different programs that guide them, whatever category you brought to the adult education, and with different programs, the literature and the results of recent studies confirm that no entry for adult education must meet the following conditions:
- to be taken into account when designing the program, and to identify its contents, and the choice of means of submission, the impact of mental and social maturity and previous experience for adults. Therefore, it is transferred knowledge and adult teaching methods in the field of education to the education of young adults making a big mistake affects adults bored, and lead them to drop out of education.
- to establish the program in its objectives and its contents and procedures to know the documented needs of learners: cognitive, affective and skill, social, and that the program is designed to pander to adults, and respond to their concerns, and to strengthen their perception of positive self-esteem, and focus on the strengths of the learners rather than focusing on aspects of disability and limitations they have.
- to feel big since the beginning of the program, and across the stage, they were investigating which purposes, timely and fast, it may be useful in the adult teaching methods of illiterate people – for example – the focus of the first interviews of the program, to teach them how to write their names, and may be useful to also care for dividing the program into phases short-and multiple causes of success in the early stages of the successes of the largest and deepest in the following stages.
- will be adopted in the education of adults to exploit their potential mental, social, and experiences in life and work, and this requires that the essence of adult teaching methods on the actual activity practiced by adults in learning, and this means that the program is flexible, and not a measure imposed on them, and that is conditioning program depending on the feedback which draw on the views and practice in adult learning.
The choice of method that teaches the adults on the objectives and content of adult teaching methods, and levels of cognitive, cultural, social, occupational and psychological for adults, and is used in adult education are various ways: lecture, discussion, and dialogue, and role-playing, learning by correspondence, and distance learning television, radio, and learning of computer-assisted, and matches educational, and attitudes that simulate reality in the sectors and the work and tasks are different, and education through the daily work of education on the job.
Attributes success in adult teaching methods
- Building the situation of the educational needs of learners and their interests, and that is suited to their abilities.
- The situation is characterized by friendship, and to avoid formal, and refrain from patronizing the teacher to the learners.
- to contribute to adults in an effective and active in the learning process, and to ascertain the teachers that learning process is purely subjective, and that their role does not exceed facilitate learning, and enable learners to engage in the learning process, and open doors that may close in front of some learners.
- to exploit the situation in adult education knowledge and experience accumulated in the field of special programs, and that such knowledge and experience as a source of learning.
- to be keen learners – in ways that directly and indirectly – for learners notice the close link between the effort that bologna and objectives of the program.
- There are many methods used in adult education to meet the individual differences among learners in the capacities and interests, and background knowledge, professional and cultural rights.
- Evaluation of the achievements of learners cooperative action between the teacher and learners.
Assessment in adult teaching methods
If the adult education area is distinct from other types of education, the methods of assessment of achievement which must also be distinct from the methods used to teach children in formal education in general.
There are principles governing the operations, evaluation of adult education, notably the following:
- self-evaluation carried out by the great learner, the group of learners much better than the other evaluation.
- Must have several methods of assessment in adult education to include the observation and appreciation of the qualitative and quantitative returns to education, and projective testing process, and tests of attitudes and virtual realism.
- Evaluation to be an essential part of the fabric of the program, meaning that the evaluation be part of the learning process, and the use of materials and equipment, and follow-up performance, and that the evaluation be a work in progress through the stages of the program and the various units.
- must be an evaluation group on assessment results in studying education more attention from the calculations of the energies that have been made in the program.
- The range of the evaluation, and become targets to be achieved in the first stages of the education program the means to achieve the objectives of higher.
Many people have attempted to describe the attributes of a successful adult education facilitator. Here are some attributes on which most seem to agree.
Successful adult education facilitator:
- view themselves as participating in a dialogue between equals.
- are open to change and new experiences/seek to learn from helping activities.
- are genuine in entering into personal relationships with learners rather than consistent adherence to the prescribed role of the teacher.
- acceptance and trust the learner as a person of worth (unconditional positive regard).
- have empathy (non-judgmental understanding, both intellectual and emotional) for the learner’s perspective.
The first step to being a successful facilitator should be to learn everyone’s name. Even if the class is large, this is important.
The authors argue that adult teaching methods a teacher-centered, information-based and test-driven instructional format. An author-designed survey instrument called “Lower-Order Thinking Skills and Higher-Order Thinking Skills” (LOTSHOTS) was used to determine whether knowledge, comprehension and application drove adult teaching methods or analysis, synthesis and evaluation drove adult teaching methods. The results of the study showed that instructors of adults were used to teaching lower thinking skills associated with the first three levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy, namely, knowledge, comprehension and application. The study proposes some possible reasons and implications of such practices, and suggests that teaching higher order thinking skills to adult students might widen their horizon in engaging more openly in learning.